It is now well-established that cancer is well-linked to smoking. And now according to researchers, cigarettes increase the odds for developing colon cancer, especially for women.
According to the new study, published April 30 in Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, women who’ve ever smoked have an almost 20 percent increased risk for colon cancer, compared with women who never smoked.
“Women who smoke even 10 or fewer cigarettes a day increase their risks for colon cancer,” said lead researcher Dr. Inger Gram, a professor in the department of community medicine at the University of Tromso in Norway.
“Because colon cancer is such a common disease, even these moderate smoking accounts for many new cases,” she said. “A lot of colon cancer can be prevented if people don’t smoke — especially women.”
More than 600,000 men and women ages 19 to 67 are involved in the study whereas they were surveyed by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Participants answered questions concerning their smoking habits, physical activity and other lifestyle factors.
Over 14 years of follow-up nearly 4,000 people developed colon cancer, and the odds were greatest for smokers, women in particular according to Gram’s team. The risk for colon cancer increased 19 percent among women who smoked and 8 percent for men who smoked, they added.
The researchers said, the more years a woman smoked, the earlier she started smoking, and the more packs of cigarettes smoked a year, the greater her risk of developing colon cancer. Women who smoked for 40 years or more increased their risk for colon cancer almost 50 percent, they added.
Gram noted, their risk was especially high for developing proximal, or right-sided, colon cancer, with a type of tumor specifically related to smoking.
Gram said she was surprised the link between smoking and colon cancer was so much greater for women, and said the reasons aren’t clear.
Although this study shows an association between smoking and colon cancer, it does not establish a cause-and-effect relationship. However, the link between smoking and colon cancer is more than a coincidence, Gram pointed out.
“Colon cancer is a smoking-related cancer,” she said. “That has recently been established by the International Agency for Research on Cancer of the World Health Organization.” Based on a review of prior research, the WHO says long-term smoking appears to double the risk of colon cancer. It also increases risk for bladder and pancreatic cancer, according to the agency.
One expert, Dr. Stephanie Bernik, chief of surgical oncology at Lenox Hill Hospital in New York City, doesn’t believe the heightened risk for colon cancer among women is solely related to smoking. Alcohol use, diet and lack of exercise may also play a role, Bernik said.
“Usually, smoking goes along with other bad health habits,” Bernik said. “However, this adds to the growing data that cigarette smoking contributes to the increased risk of colon cancer.”
Another expert offered some advice. “If you smoke, you should quit,” said Dan Jacobsen, from the Center for Tobacco Control at North Shore-LIJ Health System in Great Neck, N.Y. “There are a lot of good methods, programs and resources out there if you want to try to quit smoking,” he added.
“Smoking is just toxic to our bodies,” said Jacobsen. “It’s the number one preventable cause of death and disease.”
Taco Bell was well-known as one of the purveyor of junk food and they wanted to start erasing that from our memory yet they are not ready to give up the chalupa yet.
Wednesday, the chain announced that it’s exploring ways to offer more “balanced choices,” marking just the latest sign that the fast-food industry is trying to adapt to shifting tastes and upend the conventional wisdom that it only offers caloric indulgences.
Taco Bell is testing a “range of products” this year, with national launches planned for 2014. He also said existing menu items could also be reformulated but noted that the chain would remain true to its brand, CEO Greg Creed said.
“We’re not going to walk away from who Taco Bell is,” Creed stated.
Taco Bell says, by 2020, 20% of its combo meals will meet nutritional guidelines for calories and fat set out by the federal government. People eat three meals a day, as a general thought, that means a single meal would have about a third of the recommended intake of about 2,000 to 2,500 calories. The company has no idea of what portion of meals currently meet those guidelines.
Taco Bell is known for urging people to eat nachos as a “fourth meal” late at night, it is a bit of a contrary to the announcement and it gained a lot of skeptics. However it demonstrates just how much difficulty the broader industry is facing to overturn its greasy-food image as people more and more look out for alternatives they believe are healthier.
The lower-calorie options were a key indicator of growth at restaurant chains between 2006 and 2011 from a report by the Hudson Institute earlier this year. The increase in customer traffic rise by 11 per cent by those chains that expanded while those that didn’t saw traffic fall by 15 per cent, according to the public policy research group.
As customer “tastes and needs” evolve, Creed said that offering more balanced choices would be critical in helping Taco Bell reach its growth targets over the next decade.
As such, he said product developers have been given “nutrition guardrails” they need to stay within. He declined to provide details on the new menu offerings that are being developed.
Taco Bell’s drive to raise the image of its food pave the way for last year’s introduction of a line of “Cantina” burrito bowls that are seen as being more in line with fast-growing rival Chipotle Mexican Grill Inc. Taco Bell claims its lower-calorie “fresco” options, which were introduced in 2005 and come without cheese or sour cream, account for only about 2 per cent of sales.
“We’ve gone from the whistle-blowing stage to the higher-expectations stage, and some of those expectations are being met,” Mark Bittman, New York Times writer, wrote in the piece, which argued that the public was ready for a healthy fast-food chain.
Those instances don’t stopped fast-food chains to offer more indulgent creations. Taco Bell rolled out hand-held tortilla-wrapped “griller” snacks; one of the varieties comes stuffed with fried potatoes, a nacho cheese sauce, bacon and sour cream, earlier this year.
A new study has claimed that listening to live music may boost the health of premature babies who are being treated in the neonatal intensive care unit.
According to the research, when the premature babies in intensive care listened to live music, they showed measurable improvements in heart rate, sucking behavior, sleep patterns and calorie intake.
Adding up, MyHealthNewsDaily reported, music helped parents and babies bond, and relieved the stress of parents.
The US study at 11 hospitals was composed of 272 premature infants in neonatal intensive care units, or NICUs. The infants had health issues from breathing problems, bacterial bloodstream infections or down to were small for their age.
The researchers examined at preemies` reactions to three types of music therapy. One is an instrument involved a Remo ocean disc that produces a soothing “whoosh” sound. Another one is an intervention involved a gato box, which is a drumlike wooden box that is played softly with the fingers.
According to the researchers, the ocean disc imitates the sound of the in utero environment and in effect it could have a soothing, sleep-enhancing consequence, whereas the gato box would sound akin to a mother`s heartbeat.
While in the third intervention, parents sang a lullaby to their baby, what researchers call a “song of kin”, that had a cultural, childhood or religious meaning. But they sang the default tune of “Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star” if the parents didn`t have a song of kin.
For 10 minutes three times a week for two weeks each baby was exposed to each intervention.
Results demonstrated that each music intervention had special various health benefits. In some case, preemies whose parents sang to them had the furthermost boost in activity or alertness.
The whooshing sound of the Remo ocean disc was connected with the utmost development in sleep patterns, and the sounds produced by the gato box amplified babies` sucking behavior, that consequently helped with swallowing and breathing.
Comparing both babies who listened to song of kin and “Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star”, babies who heard a song of kin consumed more calories than babies who listened to “Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star.” Conversely, babies who heard “Twinkle, Twinkle” had to some extent higher levels of oxygen in their blood.
Parents who sang to their babies reported feeling much less stress.
“The findings mean musical therapies could be tailored to the specific needs of a preemie,” said study researcher Joanne Loewy, director of the Louis Armstrong Center for Music & Medicine at Beth Israel Medical Center in New York.
“Live sounds are the key. When a music therapist teaches parents to entrain with the baby`s vital signs, it can have a therapeutic effect,” Loewy said.
The sounds researchers utilized during the study varied from 55 to 65 decibels, alike to the volume of a moderate rainfall or a conversation.
It was always been a debate whether or not chemical medications are good for the heath or have no side effects on the body especially on children. Over the years, there have been many recalls on several drugs due to inadequate or worse non-existent testing procedures. This is a major burden to parents when their children become ill. Little did they know that there are other medications cheaper and safer. Here are some tips:
These following guidelines are your medicine cabinet’s must haves:
This is something good for children and adults’ alike, homeopathic medicines can be found at most health food store in quick dissolving tablet form.
Belladonna- 6C: Best and helpful for fevers that come on unexpectedly, and it is also good for clear runny nose. Belladonna is helpful as well in easing headaches and inflamed red sore throats.
Pulsatilla-6C: When nasal discharge is thicker and children are acting clingy and weepy try using this because this is good for it. What’s more is it is helpful for earaches that are less intense.
Chamomilla- 6C: For irritability and digestive issues, this homeopathic remedy is very good for those sicknesses. And also this is a great help to ease severe pain associated with teething, earaches and gas pains.
Homemade medicines are a lot cheaper, safer and easy access.
Unlike commercial products that contain petroleum based, vapor rub is something you can do yourself. Here is how: mix eucalyptus and peppermint essential oils with your favorite oil and rub the mixture on feet and chest, easy!
Without alcohol and other additives, onion and honey cough medicine is a wonderful homemade alternative. Be certain to use good honey; local, organic, raw honey is the finest as it will help to prevent allergies too. The benefit of both honey and onion is that it reduces bronchial constriction because both have anti-bacterial properties and onions contain a compound that. Any onion color will do, chop it and place in a jar, and cover the onion bits with honey. The next day, discard the onion pieces and save the liquid.
This next tip has been used to promote health for centuries now. Honey and cinnamon, this mixture can aid at the first sign of cold and has proven to boost the immune system whether separately or together. To get rid of the cold, just mix one teaspoon of honey with a teaspoon of cinnamon, your colds will be gone in couple of days.
This may sound a little unrealistic for some but definitely true, the healing power of touch. This healing power can be in the form of hugs, kisses, cuddles or even light placement of the hands on areas where there is pain and discomfort. Many studies can back-up that healing touch can reduce pain, boost the immune system, lower stress levels and promote relaxation and healing.
Aside from being cost effective and easy to prepare, natural cold and flu remedies have higher success rate. Homeopathic medicines act to cure the imbalances that preceding to sickness and can be used to stop the illness altogether. They are better than the commercial. Over the counter medicines simply mask the symptoms, or antibiotics that are shown to lower the immune system and decrease resistance. It is also a good fraud prevention, no will never get scammed. Go for alternative medicines.
What you put into your body together with the right combination of diet and mental, physical, social and spiritual fitness plays a critical role in determining whether a persons ages in a healthy way.
The irony, those foods which may not be so appealing to the eyes and taste buds quite often offer the greatest health benefits. Fish, nuts, richly colored fruits and vegetables, legumes, yogurt, whole grains and plenty of water make up a great combination for the ultimate Anti-Aging Diet. You can eat your way to a healthy living.
The body’s ability to absorb nutrients weakens as the body ages. Because of this, it is significant to know the variety of sources of age-fighting foods in one’s chase to find their own personal fountain of youth. Richly colored fruits and vegetables are great antioxidants that offer vitamins A, C and E. Antioxidants help to combat free radicals that can damage cells and cause disease and deterioration.
Bioflavonoid, a more specific antioxidant found in the pigment of richly colored fruits and vegetables. Bioflavonoid alone are said to lead to better eyesight, improved cardiovascular health, increased capillary strength, improved structure of connective tissues and appearance of skin, and a stronger immune system.
To prevent heart disease high cholesterol, high blood pressure, diabetes, arthritis, osteoporosis and much more eat fish, eggs and some oils each offer omega 3 and 6 fatty acids.
Always keep moving, this Is one of the greatest secret of ant-aging and whether you exercise at home, at a gym, in a class, or by yourself, the benefits are sure to be in favor of you. Remain consistent but it is also recommended that you consult your physician before beginning any exercise program.
Mental, social and spiritual fitness also promote healthy aging. Latest studies show that mental perception in aging is not necessarily, nor solely affected by the normal aging process, this is according to National Institute on Aging. In actual fact, to a greater extent of research demonstrates that depression plays a larger, critical role in whether the aging mind is unfavorably affected or deprived of its youth and memory function. New activities, hobbies, and exercise are wonderful anti-depressants. According to Healthy Aging Website list several ways to boost mental, social and spiritual wellness:
- Take a class, play games, be with people
- Pick up the phone now and call someone, just to “chat”
- Volunteer your time. Get involved with a cause you believe in or in something that interests you
- Seek out variety and challenge in your daily life
- Give of Yourself. Be generous with the most important thing you own — your time. Volunteer: how about the Peace Corps, a local nursing home, or teach a youngster to swim.
- Seek Inspiration/Keep the Faith. Belief in a higher power is of paramount importance according to the contest entrants.
Before the web about 20 years ago, roughly 4,000 people from 200 companies congregated in San Diego for a conference to talk about the future of health-care information technology. This was long before the technology of the WEB begins, when computers in physicians’ offices were used only for scheduling and billing patients and paper charts bulged out of huge filing cabinets.
It was one of HIMSS’s or Information and Management Systems Society’s first big conferences. Several physicians, technologists, visionaries, engineers and entrepreneurs shared one idealistic goal, a goal to use information systems and technology to fundamentally change health care.
The intention was not just to improve the old system but a future that looked a lot like we were being promised throughout the economy as it sped into the Internet era. The aim is for the computers enabling improvements in the practice of medicine to make it safer, higher quality, more affordable and more efficient, all in for one same goal, to make the people healthier.
A company that was called Allscripts was then built not long after the said conference. Its focus was electronic prescriptions. The old joke about impossible to read doctor’s handwriting was after all no joke, because according to The Institute of Medicine, about 7,000 Americans were dying each year from paper prescription errors
The first fully electronic prescription using Allscripts system was transmitted by an innovative physician named Azar Korbey of New Hampshire. As of today about 600 million prescriptions out of 1.5 billion in the U.S. are written electronically, this is according to industry source SureScripts. This is a considerable development but there is more to do but it is safe to say electronic prescribing is saving lives.
Rivals have a common goal, Allscripts, Cerner and Epic, to make all physician practices and hospitals digital. So the next phase was electronic health records. These competitors found ways to automate a complicated clinical encounter.
The goal seems didn’t seem to be unattainable although putting PCs on every desk was only the first step in the information revolution. And it all started when these PCs were then connected to the Internet and developed “apps”, everything changed. Consider Amara’s Law: “We tend to overestimate the effect of a technology in the short run and underestimate the effect in the long run.”
Did we succeed in doing what was said we would do two decades ago?
The whole process has been hard, from zero to getting nearly half a million physicians using electronic records, required a tough effort. Rewording Churchill, this is not the end. It is not even the beginning of the end. But is it, perhaps, the end of the beginning of the electronic health revolution.
There had been many critics and disbelievers trying to knock the value of the investments in the system, pass judgment on the government’s stimulus, and doubted the return on investment. An open letter to president Obama by David Kibbe, a physician and technology advisor to the American Academy of Family Physicians, says that electronic health records are “notoriously expensive” and “difficult to implement.” Disagreeing about subsidies, Kibbe wrote: “Nor is there conclusive evidence that the use of EHRs improves patient care quality.”
More people now understand that making digital records work is critical to fixing health care. The annual HIMSS conference held last week in New Orleans is expecting 35,000 people and 1,000 vendors to focus on that task.
“The impact of IT on health care over the past decade has so far been modest,” this is concluded by the President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology concluded in a recent report. The key words: so far. Investors and the industry would be wise not to underestimate what’s coming. It is nothing short of an explosion in innovation and creativity, facilitated by open systems and connectivity.
The technology can fix itself; this is was what the council has found out. “The ability to integrate electronic health information about a patient and exchange it among clinical providers remains the exception rather than the rule,” this is what the report saying right now and this is exactly what need the change.
The job on getting all the physicians on board is still on going, while the CDC reported in December that 73% of physicians now use electronic health records, up from about a third two years ago. This means a great progress yet there are still many physicians using paper.
Next step is to get all the records connected to each other, this means the industry, through HIMSS and the government, through the Office of the National Coordinator, are pushing for interoperability.
For the time being, the existing systems that were already installed needs improvement. This is because they are not user-friendly, and this claim is from someone who spent 15 years developing and selling them. With the development of the new iPad and other mobile apps, this will help the industry to do better and it will. Electronic health records today tend to be “information retrieval” tools and we have to vitally change it.
Human health will be improved once records are open, connected, and more user-friendly, we can start to add intelligence to the network that will help doctors, nurses, care coordinators and patients all do a better job.
Health care in next to no time will be overflowing with similarly exciting start-ups producing apps that alter everything. We actually see it is starting to happen; ground-breaking companies like dbMotion are linking dissimilar systems across health care organizations. Other innovators, like Humedica recently acquired by OptumHealth, they are learning how to mine data for insights that will help physicians and care coordinators keep track of large panels of patients.
Medical apps that dial into electronic health records at last are starting to be seen everywhere. This will impact cost and quality in very significant ways like an example is a wireless scale can notify a nurse when a congestive heart failure patient gains weight indicating dangerous fluid retention. Or just look how convenient this will be, wearing a device that allows your vital signs to be remotely monitored all the time, rather than at a once-a-year doctor visit.
“Technology, properly applied, is indistinguishable from magic.” It is the “applied” part of that dream we are still working on. But I’m confident we’ll get there. A connected system will help patients take responsibility for their health. Strong teams of physicians, nurses and caregivers will use an intelligent network to make their results better and their jobs easier. It does sound like magic. And we are getting closer each year. Just take a walk around HIMSS and you’ll see the future.—Arthur C. Clarke
Lifestyle has a big factor in having cancer and also a big factor to avoid it.
Do not overeat; obesity can cause a lot of risk to get cancer. It’s a major cause of cancers of the esophagus, colon and rectum, pancreas, breast, endometrium, and kidneys. Overeating can encourage tumor growth. Tumors entail a lot more energy to absorb nutrients and grow and divide faster than a normal, healthy cell. Control your diet. Eat sufficient and not more than what your body needs.
Exercise can reduce you risk for many types of cancer. Being fit seems to have an anti-cancer effect in itself aside from helping you loose weight. Exercising doesn’t necessarily mean going to the gym, you can exercise at home a 30 minute a day at least 5 days a week can help cancer prevention.
Limit your alcohol intake; we need to be careful about how much alcohol we drink. Drinking excessive amounts of alcohol regularly increases your risk factor for many types of cancers of the mouth, pharynx, larynx, oesophagus, colon and rectum, and breast; and also causes cirrhosis, which raises the risk of liver cancer. More than 2 drinks of alcohol a day for men and 1 alcohol drink for women a day can increase risk factors for certain types of cancer.
The most significant cancer risk factor that we can reduce is smoking. Many though that smoking is only responsible for lung cancer but little did they know that it also causes many types of cancer. Second hand smoke is even dangerous because this contains more than 60 known carcinogens’. These carcinogens interrupt normal cell development. This interference is what ignites cancer development. It is the smoke exhaled from a smoker or a lit cigarette, pipe or cigar.
A well-balanced diet is beneficial for countless reasons. Eating fruits and vegetables can protect against several cancers, they contain antioxidants, we should eat five serves of vegetables and two serves of fruit each day. Antioxidants help repair our damaged cells. Green, orange and yellow fruits and vegetables are your best bet to help prevent cancer. Studies also demonstrate that dark fruits, like blueberries and grapes, may also have anti-cancer properties.
According to many studies, cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli and cauliflower appear to pack a powerful punch at preventing cancer. Additional cruciferous vegetables include bok choy, Brussel sprouts, and cabbage.
Although meat is a terrific source of protein it is probably the most surprising finding that red meat was convincingly linked to colorectal cancer, along side with processed meat. Red meat contains much more fat than poultry and fish and studies shown that a diet high in animal fat increases the risk for several types of cancer. A diet high in fat also is major cause of obesity, which is a risk factor for many types of cancer. The more meat you eat, the greater the risk is. About 30% increase in cancer risk factor is added to meat consumers compare to non-eater. 500 grams* of red meat is the only amount recommended in a week and avoid processed meat such as bacon, ham, salami, corned beef and some sausages. Legumes such as beans, lentils and soybeans are good substitutes for protein source.
Another reason not to eat red meat too much according to some scientists is cooking at high temperatures (another reason to curb your barbecue cravings) and red meat’s natural glycoproteins, which induce chronic inflammation in human tissue.
Foods high in folate possibly will reduce the risk of cancer of the pancreas, and diets high in calcium may reduce the risk of bowel cancer. Additional recommendations include:
- limit consumption of salt
- don’t take vitamin supplements – you don’t need them and some have been linked to cancer
- Mothers should breastfeed babies for the first six months: breastfeeding protects women against breast and other cancers.
- Eating too many carbohydrates can also lead to chronic inflammation, which in turn, could encourage tumor growth.
Most cancer can be avoided and it is easier than you think. Lifestyle plays a big role in cancer prevention; you can drastically reduce your risk if you change your lifestyle soon.
We have been hearing about this stem cell lately but does everyone know about what this really is? According to medical researchers, stem cell treatments have the potential to change the face of human disease and alleviate suffering.
There are already many stem treatments nowadays but they are not usually used because they tend to be experimental and they are very expensive.
Medical researchers foresee being able to use technologies derived from stem cell research to treat cancer, spinal cord injuries, and muscle damage, amongst a number of other diseases and impairments.
This stem cell therapy is established in order to treat disease or injury by introducing new adult stem cells into damaged tissue. Stem cell therapy is an intervention strategy. The good thing about stem cell is that there are minimal risk of rejection and side effects. They have the ability to self-renew and give rise to subsequent generations with variable degrees of differentiation capacities. They also offer significant potential for generation of tissues that can potentially replace diseased and damaged areas in the body.
It has been said that there are already a number of stem-cell therapies that exist but most are costly. But bone-marrow transplantation, to some extent has exemption.
Medical researchers are hopeful of that adult and embryonic stem cells will soon be able to treat cancer, Type 1 diabetes mellitus, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, Celiac disease, cardiac failure, muscle damage and neurological disorders, and many others. Even so, more research is necessary to understand stem-cell behavior before stem-cell therapeutics can be practiced in the clinical setting and upon transplantation as well as the mechanisms of stem-cell interaction with the diseased/injured microenvironment.
Tissues and organs in the body that are damaged due to age, disease and congenital defects can now regenerate and be repaired by the use of stem cells to create living and functional tissues again. Stem cells have the ability to go to these damaged areas and regenerate new cells and tissues by performing a repair and a renewal process. They restore functionality.
Stem cells have the power of restoring organ and/or tissue function for patients with serious injuries or chronic disease in which the bodies own responses are not sufficient enough to restore functional tissue. The growing number of patients who needs transplantation and the fear of looking old lead to a search for new and alternative therapies.
Although stem cell therapy comes in to be very costly more and more are trying to gain benefits from the therapy. There were many claims that the said therapy is yet very effective yet no side effects at all. But many are still skeptical of stem cell theraphy because it is still under research and study. It may have no effects now but could have later on.
Federal Trade Commission: Up to 80 percent of scam victims are over 65. Despite long experience with the ways of the world, older people are especially vulnerable to fraud.
Crooks find older people more susceptive from fraud. Their age acts as if a built-in detector for the scammers. The reason may lie in the brain region called the anterior insula. The anterior insula is less active in older people as a result making them less cautious than younger people.
According to social neuroscientist Shelley Taylor of the University of California, Los Angeles, research backs up the idea that older people can put a positive spin on things — emotionally charged pictures, for example, and playing virtual games in which they risk the loss of money. “Older people are good at regulating their emotions, seeing things in a positive light, and not overreacting to everyday problems,” she says. But this trait may make them less wary. Both FTC and the Federal Bureau of Investigation agreed on their findings that older people are easy targets due in part to their tendency to put emphasis on the positive, which also supports Taylor’s findings.
Taylor and colleagues made an experiment to find out if older people really are less able to spot a shyster. Signs of untrustworthiness include averted eyes; an insincere smile that doesn’t reach the eyes; a smug, smirky mouth; and a backward tilt to the head. The participants were asked to rate each face on a scale from -3 (very untrustworthy) to 3 (very trustworthy). They showed photos of faces considered trustworthy, neutral, or untrustworthy to a group of 119 older adults (ages 55 to 84) and 24 younger adults (ages 20 to 42).
The study can be considered to be successful because, the “untrustworthy” faces were perceived as significantly more trustworthy by the older subjects as by the younger ones, as expected from the older people. To further attest to the theory, the researchers then performed the same test on a different set of volunteers, this time imaging their brains during the process, to look for differences in brain activity between the age groups. In the younger subjects, when asked to judge whether the faces were trustworthy, the anterior insula became active; the activity increased at the sight of an untrustworthy face. The older people, however, showed little or no activation.
The insula’s job is to collect information not about others but about one’s own body — sensing feelings, including “gut instincts” — and present that information to the rest of the brain. “It’s a warning bell that doesn’t seem to work as well in older people.” By habitually seeing the world in a positive light, older people may be overriding this warning signal, says Taylor. “It looks like the brain is conspiring with what older people do naturally.”
But the theory has its flaws since the study is limited to faces. Whether the insula activates in response to non-facial cues, such as telephone scams (a particular problem for older people), remains unclear, says Taylor.
Influenza A virus or more known to us as H5N1 is an avian (bird) flu, an influenza A subtype that has caused outbreaks in domestic poultry in parts of Asia and the Middle East. This is deadly to them and is considered “highly pathogenic” meaning highly disease causing. Although the virus does not usually infect people but infectious that these viruses occurred in humans. Most of these cases have resulted from people having direct or close contact with H5N1-infected poultry or H5N1-contaminated surfaces.
There are three types of viruses, A, B, and C, that can cause flu to human. The type A is characterized not only to human but to other mammals and birds too. The virus transmitted by air. The type A virus is composed of two obligatory protein components. One is called hemagglutinin and is lettered H, and the other—neuraminidase (N). And there are 13 variants of hemagglutinin and 9 of neuraminidase, which then can characterized what type of virus it is. Making H5N1 is just out of the many possible variants of the virus structure.
Many parts of the world has been infected by the virus such as Asia, parts of Europe, the Near East Africa, birds as well as half of the humans infected did not survive. The outbreaks infected poultry and wild birds, and humans who have direct contact with the infected animal. In most cases, healthy children and young adult and have resulted from direct contact with H5N1-infected poultry or contaminated surfaces were infected.
The H5N1 virus does not infect humans easily and in general it remains very rare disease in people. If the person is infected it is not that easy to spread it to another human. However, there has been some human-to-human spread of the virus although it is limited.
But scientists are anxious that H5N1 virus one day could infect humans then spread easily from person-to-person because viruses such as influenza have the ability to change.
Although at the moment that the virus do not commonly infect humans, there is little or no protection against them and if the virus will change and could begin to spread from human-to-human there will likely result a very high deaths.
To know whether infected by the virus, people may show as follows:
- Fever and cough
- Acute respiratory distress
- Shortness of breath/difficulty breathing
- Abdominal pain
- Muscle aches
- Breathing problems (severe cases)
- Pneumonia (severe cases)
- Respiratory failure
- Altered mental state
- Failure of multiple organs (e.g. kidney failure)
If someone with H5N1 experienced diarrhea followed rapidly by a coma without developing respiratory or flu-like symptoms. Studies showed of the levels of cytokines in humans infected by the H5N1 flu virus. Of main concern is an elevated level of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, a protein that is associated with tissue destruction at sites of infection and increased production of other cytokines. A flu virus-induced increase in the level of cytokines is also associated with flu symptoms including fever, chills, vomiting and headache. Tissue damage associated with pathogenic flu virus infection can ultimately result in death.